Lead is a soft and malleable metal belonging to the carbon group. It is the heaviest non-radioactive element which occurs naturally on earth in the form of four isotopes: lead-208, 207, 206, and 204.
It is generally found in ores with copper, silver and zinc and is extracted together with these metals. Lead compounds exist in two main oxidation states: +4 and +2.
It is widely used in construction activities, production of weights, lead-acid batteries, and as a radiation shield. Conventional lead-acid batteries have a significant history in providing energy storage for a wide range of end-use applications, in mobile as well as stationary applications.
The global market for lead has been witnessing noticeable growth on account of growing lead-acid battery consumption. In addition, the global demand is estimated to be significant in the coming years as capacity expansions and new operations boost supply at a faster rate than demand.